Introducing the New Diploma in Illumination Engineering Course Curriculum – September 2018 Newsletter

BHA School of Lighting continues to strive to deliver the best and most up to date lighting education. As a result we are phasing out the “Old” and are introducing a “New” curriculum for the Diploma in Illumination Engineering Course which will be phased in from the end of September 2018.

New Curriculum – September 2018

MODULE 1 : Introduction : Nature of light, radiation, visible spectrum, production of the visible spectrum, the prism spectroscope, spectra of common light sources, spectral energy distribution diagrams, energy distribution diagrams, colour of light, polarisation, production and absorption of polarised light, polarisation of reflection, uses of polarisation.

MODULE 2 : Production of Light : Forms of luminescence: 1. Thermo-luminescence; 2. Electro-luminescence; 3. Photo-luminescence; 4. Chemi-luminescence.

MODULE 3 : Controlling Light : Absorption, transmission, reflection, factors of each, refraction, critical angle and total internal reflection, refraction by parallel-sided blocks and by prisms

MODULE 4 : Colour : Visible spectrum, colour mixing, colour rendition of light sources, colour matching, colour specification.

MODULE 5 : Light and the Eye & The Phenomenon of Vision: Structure of the eye, defects of vision, accommodation, fixation, contrast, sensitivity, visibility curve, Purkinje effect, Adaptation, persistence of vision, glare, visual acuity, fatigue, contrast, speed of vision.

MODULE 6 : Fundamental Photometry, Intensity Distribution Diagrams, Calculations, Photometric concepts, photometric definitions and units, relationship between units, photometric terms, primary standard of light, photometric laws, Classification of intensity distribution, polar curves, isocandela diagrams, light flux calculations.

MODULE 7 : Illumination Calculations : Point, line and surface sources, illumination diagrams.

MODULE 8 : Photometry including the Integrating Sphere and the Goniophotometer : Basis of visual photometry, bench photometry, sub-standard lamps, photometer heads, screening, methods of use and measurement, calibration, measuring instruments.

MODULE 9 : Incandescent Lamps : Types, construction, light and electrical qualities, luminance, effects of voltage variations.

MODULE 10 : Discharge Lamps : Fluorescent tubes, construction, circuitry, operating conditions, effects of voltage variations; Basic theory, mercury vapour lamps, construction, circuitry, operating conditions, effects of voltage variations.Low pressure sodium lamps, construction, circuitry, operating conditions, effects of voltage variations; High pressure sodium lamps, construction, circuitry, operating conditions, effects of voltage variations; Metal halide lamps, construction, circuitry, operating conditions, effects of voltage variations.

MODULE 11 : Daylight : Nature and variation factors in a room, specifications, recordings, determination of daylight and sky factors.

MODULE 12 : LED : Introduction to LEDs, LED fundamentals, reliability of LEDs and LED luminaire reliability, important aspects affecting LED performance and lifespan, international standards and testing methodology.

MODULE 13 : Lighting Materials : Methods of light control, absorbing materials, reflecting materials, refracting materials, luminaire construction.

MODULE 14 : Standards and Compliance : SANS 204, SANS 10114, SANS 10400 and OHS, Act 85 of 1993.

MODULE 15 : Interior Lighting Applications : Task analysis, design methods, average illumination, point-by-point calculations, light distributions, direct vs indirect lighting, lighting levels (SANS, OSHA and other), uniformity, glare calculations, Office, commercial, industrial, education, domestic, geriatric care, health care, lighting for hazardous environments, display, visual display units. The manual consists of 6 volumes, each dealing with specific applications in detail.

MODULE 16 : Exterior Lighting Part 1 : Street lighting, SABS 095, arterial routes, pedestrian and residential areas, Floodlighting for sports, work areas, security, decorative floodlighting, parks, statues, water features.

MODULE 17 : Economics : Lighting energy audits, cost analysis, capital, installation, maintenance, energy, interest, assessments.

MODULE 18 : Lighting Design Philosophy and Systematic route to Best Lighting Practice : Guidelines and systems evolved from years of practical experience.

MODULE 19 : The Fourth Industrial Revolution : The various past “revolutions” will be examined so that they can be placed in the development periods then the precise meaning and interpretation of the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be examined in order to identify how lighting will not only be affected but more specifically to examine the roles that it will play.

MODULE 20 : The Internet of Things (IoT) : This fascinating subject will be examined in order to understand how and where lighting plays a role. You will be astounded to discover how long this has been happening for and how far this technology and specifically lighting in the world of IoT has come.

MODULE 21 : Power over Ethernet (PoE) : In this module students will learn what about the technology, the components in the architecture of the system, the types of Ethernet cable and their limitations for lighting, the benefits of PoE including installation costs and much more.

MODULE 22 : Visible Light Communication (VLC) : Students will learn about the different systems that can be used in this module which include Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Li-Fi, the system architecture, smart device applications and various applications which would benefit from using VLC and more.

MODULE 23 : Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) : Students will learn about the system architecture which includes Bluetooth Beacons, Radio Frequency Identity (RFID) tagging, smart device applications and the various applications which would benefit from using IPS and more.

MODULE 24 : Bluetooth Mesh : This amazing relatively new system (only conceived in 2015 and first adopted on 13 July 2017 and only started to take-off in 2018). Learn what Bluetooth mesh is, how it can be used with lighting, how to install the technology, what is required in the luminaires, smart device applications to set up the system, how entire multi-storey buildings AND neighbouring buildings owned or occupied by the same company or organisation can all use the same single system.

MODULE 25 : Lighting Control Systems : These will include DALI, DALI 2, DMX 512, KNX, LONWORKS, and of Course Bluetooth Mesh (BM). Students will learn about each system, the benefits and limitations, how best to implement the system within the lighting design, when and how the system can or cannot be used for other essential system controls within the building as a whole.

MODULE 26: Human-Centric Lighting (HCL) : What is human centric lighting, how can it benefit the occupants and the operators of the location? How HCL can be used in hospitals, geriatric care facilities, education and the work place.

MODULE 27 : Part 1 : Lighting Design Software : First Revision of manual calculation methods includes those learnt in Module 7 and additional new methods. Students will prepare a lighting design for an entire shopping centre using manual lighting calculations.

MODULE 27 : Part 2 : Computer-aided Lighting Design : Includes the pitfalls and blind acceptance of Results

MODULE 27 : Part 3 : Practical Lighting Design using Relux Pro : This module consists of 3 “Day” sets of exercises for indoor applications and 1 “Day” exercise which is entirely exterior applications including street, flood lighting, parking areas and more. Even seasoned professional users have been astounded at the new heights that they have attained after completing this course. The training manuals (not standard manuals which are available online) were especially developed and written by RELUX Switzerland for our use.

MODULE 27 : Part 4 : AutoCAD and a brief look at Dialux and Dialux EVO.

MODULE 28 :Over-Illumination : Definition, historical evolution of over-illumination practise, examples of over-illumination, guidelines to correct over-illumination in existing installations.

MODULE 29 :Light Pollution : Definition, historical evolution of light pollution practise, examples of light pollution, guidelines to correct light pollution in existing installations and good practice and considerations in outdoor lighting.

At the end of each year, in the twelfth month of the study year of each individual student, both theoretical and practical examinations are written.

In second year students are required to complete special assignments which they can access at the beginning of second year. They are required to do their own research and submit the assignments for marking which counts towards their final second year marks, before the end of their eleventh study month.

MODULE 30 : My Parting Gift To Graduates

We are pleased to welcome the following students:

  • Cindy Kim Montague, Lighting Innovations Africa, Johannesburg – BHASL003: Diploma in Illumination Engineering
  • Gino Ulgheri, Lighting Innovations Africa, Johannesburg – BHASL003: Foundation Lighting Course
  • Renske Snyman, DR Business Solutions, Cape Town – BHASL003: Diploma in Illumination Engineering

We apologise for an error in print which appeared in the August 2018 Newsletter:

Rufus Mahlekhane of ACDC Dynamics, Johannesburg – BHASL003: Diploma in Illumination Engineering

Happy Birthday to the following students, we hope you all have a wonderful day:

  • Thabo Nkuna, Pretoria – 11 September
  • Dane Upton, Cape Town – 15 September
  • David Cousins, Cape Town – 16 September
  • Bevan Rose, Port Elizabeth – 19 September
  • Max Guldenpfennig, Pretoria – 20 September
  • Adrian Craddock, Johannesburg – 23 September
  • Graeme Bevan, Cape Town – 23 September
  • Francois Du Preez, Pretoria – 24 September
  • Carl Koch, Cape Town – 25 September
  • Graham van den Berg, Johannesburg – 27 September
  • Mellecia Ralethe, Pretoria – 30 September

  • Introduction of New Curriculum Phase 1 – New Modules 5 and 6 –  29/30 September 2018
  • Introduction of New Curriculum Phase 2 – New Modules 7, 8, 9 and 10 – 14/15 October 2018
  • Announcing a LIVE LECTURE – “RELUX DESKTOP – AN INTRODUCTION” – Thursday 13 September 2018 at 17:30 to 18:30

Lighting Matters: Lighting & the Fourth Industrial Revolution

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Next-generation high-speed wireless internet using light, LiFi technology installed in Scottish secondary school to enhance the learning environment.

Seated right: Prof Harald Haas, the father of Li-fi Technology holding the USB Li-Fi dongle.

Scottish secondary pupils have become the first in the world to benefit from next-generation high-speed wireless internet connectivity – using light.

pureLiFi™, the pioneering technology company using light to create next-generation wireless networks, has deployed its LiFi solutions – which use light to establish wireless internet connections – at Kyle Academy secondary school in Ayr, Scotland.

The project is being conducted in conjunction with The University of Edinburgh and is being overseen by Scottish Futures Trust, which supports the Scottish Government’s Digital Strategy. The Scottish Government also supported the pilot with a £16,000 (around R300,000 as at 29 August 2018) grant through its Digital Schools initiative for equipment and installation. pureLiFi™ and the LiFi Research and Development Centre at the University of Edinburgh provided resources for the execution of the pilot with hands-on support and subsequent testing.

South Ayrshire Council’s Kyle Academy is the first school globally to pilot real LiFi technology within the classroom, which is the next generation of wireless communications technology. The installation of pureLiFi’s™ LiFi-XC system comprises of eight LiFi-enabled LED light bulbs in the ceiling and students have been given access to LiFi-XC Stations that plug into their laptops enabling high-speed connectivity through the lights.

Acknowledgement: Article by kind courtesy of LinkedIn.

Circadian lighting has Danish night nurses sleeping better

Nurses from two Danish hospitals have reaffirmed that avoiding blue frequency light at night can help with sleep.

In a pilot deployment of specially-tuned circadian lights that stripped out blue wavelengths at night to create an amber hue, 26 nurses that worked under those lights generally reported a better quality of sleep than those in a control group that used conventional white illumination, which includes blue energy in the mix.

The nurses, at neurological wards at Aarhus University Hospital and Copenhagen University Hospital, kept diaries and responded to a survey run by the hospitals in partnership with Aarhus-based Chromaviso, which supplied the human-centric lighting system. All of the nurses worked at least one night shift per week.

The pilot was one of many early examples of the emerging concept of human-centric lighting, which calibrates lights at varying frequencies, spectral power, and intensities in order to suit different tasks or times of the day.

As a nascent science, human-centric lighting — it also goes by other names including circadian lighting and lighting for health and well-being — is still characterized by a mix of conclusive and inconclusive observations regarding the absolute effect of different settings. The latest Danish study itself does not absolutely prove the sleep effectiveness of eliminating blue. As Aarhus clinical nursing specialist Leanne Langhorn noted, “We have received differing statements in the study, and therefore, the results are not clear-cut.”

But the overall set of responses and personal anecdotes suggested that the circadian system did indeed induce better sleep patterns. “There is a tendency for nurses who have been exposed to circadian lighting to generally experience better sleep, as they fall asleep more easily and their sleep is calmer,” Langhorn said. “They generally find it easier to wake up in the morning and feel more rested after three days in circadian lighting, compared to the control group.”

One of the main links between blue light and sleep is that blue has been proven to suppress melatonin, a hormone related to sleep. Exposure to blue frequencies at night — such as from gadgets as well as from bulbs and luminaires — is thus generally regarded as something to avoid. Conversely, blue light can also have a positive effect because it is known to release a pigment called melanopsin that stimulates the brain and is thus considered good for alertness during certain waking hours.

Along those lines, and on the detrimental side, some nurses in the Danish study reported that the amber circadian lights — those without blue frequencies — made them feel tired during night shifts when they needed to be wide awake.

“There have been a few that feel tired in the evening, because they need the stimulation from the white light,” said development nurse Lone Mathiesen from Copenhagen University Hospital. “Therefore, they have turned on one of the white lights in another room as needed.” Chromaviso and the two hospitals have been very active in the human-centric lighting field. For example, Aarhus University Hospital has improved sleep for brain trauma patients using Chromaviso lighting.

Chromaviso is also piloting circadian lighting with dementia patients at the Plejecentret Albertshoj care home  in Albertslund, Denmark, and has reduced drug reliance among psychiatric patients at the Aabenraa Psychiatric Hospital.

While hospitals and healthcare settings are considered ideal proving grounds for human-centric lighting — in part because the preponderance of monitoring equipment can help measure results — schools and commercial workplaces are beginning to deploy the concept, such as at the headquarters for the American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) in Washington, DC and the Bullitt Center in Seattle; at various General Services Administration buildings in the US; at Miami-Dade County Public Schools; and at many other locations.

Meanwhile, in an example of the still-inconclusive state of circadian lighting, one recent small study by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Lighting Research Center surprisingly found that the wavelength was not a factor in whether iPads kept users up at night, whereas other factors such as screen brightness and mental stimulation were more complicit.



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